Thursday, July 4, 2013

1307.1103 (Fridolin Weber et al.)

Impact of Rotation on the Structure and Composition of Neutron Stars    [PDF]

Fridolin Weber, Milva Orsaria, Rodrigo Negreiros
Depending on mass and rotational frequency, gravity compresses the matter in the core regions of neutron stars to densities that are several times higher than the density of ordinary atomic nuclei. At such huge densities atoms themselves collapse, and atomic nuclei are squeezed so tightly together that new particle states may appear and novel states of matter, foremost quark matter, may be created. This feature makes neutron stars superb astrophysical laboratories for a wide range of physical studies. And with observational data accumulating rapidly from both orbiting and ground based observatories spanning the spectrum from X-rays to radio wavelengths, there has never been a more exiting time than today to study neutron stars. The Hubble Space Telescope and X-ray satellites such as Chandra and XMM-Newton in particular have proven especially valuable. New astrophysical instruments such as the Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST), the square kilometer Array (skA), Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST), and possibly the International X-ray Observatory (now Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics, ATHENA) promise the discovery of tens of thousands of new non-rotating and rotating neutron stars. The latter are referred to as pulsars. This paper provides a short overview of the impact of rotation on the structure and composition of neutron stars. Observational properties, which may help to shed light on the core composition of neutron stars--and, hence, the properties of ultra-dense matter--are discussed.
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