Thursday, March 7, 2013

1303.1391 (A. C. Birch et al.)

Helioseismology of Pre-Emerging Active Regions II: Average Emergence Properties    [PDF]

A. C. Birch, D. C. Braun, K. D. Leka, G. Barnes, B. Javornik
We report on average subsurface properties of pre-emerging active regions as compared to areas where no active region emergence was detected. Helioseismic holography is applied to samples of the two populations (pre-emergence and without emergence), each sample having over 100 members, which were selected to minimize systematic bias, as described in Leka et al. We find that there are statistically significant signatures (i.e., difference in the means of more than a few standard errors) in the average subsurface flows and the apparent wave speed that precede the formation of an active region. The measurements here rule out spatially extended flows of more than about 15 m/s in the top 20 Mm below the photosphere over the course of the day preceding the start of visible emergence. These measurements place strong constraints on models of active region formation.
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