Monday, March 18, 2013

1303.3744 (B. Sturm et al.)

The 69 micron forsterite band in spectra of protoplanetary disks - Results from the Herschel DIGIT programme    [PDF]

B. Sturm, J. Bouwman, Th. Henning, N. J. Evans II, L. B. F. M. Waters, E. F. van Dishoeck, J. D. Green, J. Olofsson, G. Meeus, K. Maaskant, C. Dominik, J. C. Augereau, G. D. Mulders, B. Acke, B. Merin, G. J. Herczeg, The DIGIT team
Context: We have analysed Herschel-PACS spectra of 32 circumstellar disks around Herbig Ae/Be and T-Tauri stars obtained within the Herschel key programme DIGIT. In this paper we focus on the 69mu emission band of the crystalline silicate forsterite. Aims: This work provides an overview of the 69mu forsterite bands in the DIGIT sample. We aim to derive the temperature and composition of the forsterite grains. With this information, constraints can be placed on the spatial distribution of the forsterite in the disk and its formation history. Methods: Position and shape of the 69mu band are used to derive the temperature and composition of the dust by comparison to laboratory spectra of that band. We combine our data with existing Spitzer IRS spectra to compare the presence and strength of the 69mu band to the forsterite bands at shorter wavelengths. Results: A total of 32 sources have been observed, 8 of them show a 69mu emission band that can be attributed to forsterite. With the exception of the T-Tauri star AS205, all of the detections are for disks associated with Herbig Ae/Be stars. Most of the forsterite grains that give rise to the 69mu bands are warm (~100-200 K) and iron-poor (less than ~2% iron). Only AB-Aur requires approximately 3-4% of iron. Conclusions: Our findings support the hypothesis that the forsterite grains form through an equilibrium condensation process at high temperatures. The connection between the strength of the 69 and 33mu bands shows that at least part of the emission in these bands originates from the same dust grains. Further, any model that explains the PACS and the Spitzer IRS observations must take the effects of a wavelength dependent optical depth into account. We find indications of a correlation of the detection rate of the 69mu band with the spectral type of the host stars. However, our sample is too small to obtain a definitive result.
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